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Homosexuality

Updated: Aug 16, 2021

Written by - Anmol Jaiswal


Introduction


Definition

Homosexuality, what is meant by homosexuality? It is a kind of romantic attraction between members of the same sex or the same gender.


Right now there are three main types of sexual orientation they are bisexuality, heterosexuality and homosexuality are one of the three. Scientists are still unable to find the reason for this sexual orientation, but they have a theory that says that it may be caused by a complex interplay of genetic, hormonal, or environmental influences. According to the American Psychiatric Association and APA[1], claim that homosexuality is also one of the variants of human sexual orientation as opposed to a mental disorder. The scientist also believes that no evidence may prove that parenting or early childhood experience plays a role concerning sexual orientation. While some people believe that homosexuality is not natural whereas scientists have research that has proven that homosexuality is natural and is normal in human sexuality and has nothing negative psychological effects.


The words which are most commonly used for homosexual people are lesbian which is for females and gay which is used for males, but the word gay is used most commonly both for homosexual females and males. It is quite hard to identify the person who is gay or lesbian or a member of LGBTQ as they are afraid of being prejudice or discrimination such as homophobia and heterosexist. The same behaviour has also been founded in many non-human animal species, though this behaviour is not significantly observed in other animals. (Pickett, 2021)


History


Once upon a time, when homosexuality was considered to be a mental illness or disorder. But since the 1970s medical association plays a major role and labelled homosexuality as a normal counterpart of heterosexuality. And those medical associations who claimed homosexuality to be normal are based on scientific shreds of evidence. There are many gays and lesbians people who are in committed same-sex relationships, though only since the 2010s have census forms and political conditions how far can they see and identify. Homosexual relationships and acts have been regarded with respect as well as condemned, throughout recorded history, depending on the forms they took and which culture they occurred. In recent years there has been a global movement towards the freedom and equality of gay people. Anti-bullying legislation has also been introduced just in order to protect all the children at school, and also gives protection people public the legislation also includes ensuring non-discrimination, equal ability to adopt children, equal ability to serve in the military, equal access to health care, marriages and many more.


The word Homosexuality literally means that of the same sex or gender or in other words it is a hybrid of the Greek prefix that is Homo which means same and the Latin root meaning sex. The first-ever known homosexual appeared in print was found in an 1869 German pamphlet by the novelist who was an Austrian born and his name was Karl Maria Kertbeny and was published by an unknown. Again in the year 1886, Richard von Krafft-Ebing who was a psychiatrist used the term homosexual and heterosexual in his book Psychopathic Sexualis? After the publishing of that book, the book was so popular among both the doctors and laymen that the words homosexual and heterosexual became[2] the most widely spread and widely accepted terms for a sexual orientation around the globe.


There are many modern style guides in the United States who recommend not to use the term homosexual as a noun, and instead of using gay or lesbian. Just similar to that there are some places where there is completely avoiding the use of the word homosexual as they think it has a negative connotation. Now Gay and Lesbian are the most used common alternatives.


The word Gay is most commonly referred to as male homosexuality as mentioned above, but it is also used in the broader sense to refer to all LGBT people. Also, the term lesbian just refers to female homosexuality. The word lesbian has been derived from the Greek island named Lesbos, where the poet Sappho wrote widely about her feelings and emotional relationships with young women.[3]


SOCIETY ATTITUDE AND HOMOSEXUALITY


In the past 100 years, homosexual marriages were performed both within Christian and non-Christian communities. Researchers say that Catholic Church, which is being loud and forceful against homosexuality in general, was the one who approved the marriage of the same sex over 1500 years, and only now do they want to bring this performance to an end in the nineteenth century. Homosexuality cannot be said to be a new phenomenon as even in Hindu mythology homosexuality are available. Some of the literature which is drawn from the Hindu, Buddhist, Muslim, and some of the modern fiction also includes the presence of same-sex love in various forms.


Although before in early days the term homosexuality was used to refer to any single-sex context, whereas now this term is used exclusively about sexual attraction, activities, and orientation. There are some alternative terms or synonyms for same-sex attraction or sexual activities which include men who have sex with men or in short MSM, this term is used in the medical community when specifically discussing sexual activity. Some of the pejorative terms in English which were used include queer, faggot, poof, and homo. Before the beginning of the 1990s, some of these terms were considered to be positive words by gay men and lesbians, as some of these words were used in the famous television program Queer Eye for the Straight Guy.


Society attitudes varied from place to place from time to time toward same-sex relationships. Gwen Broude and Sarah Greene compared the societal attitude of homosexuality and frequency of homosexuality in the ethnographic studies availability in the standard cross-culture sample. The result that they found out is that out of 42 communities 9 of them accepted or ignored, 5 of them don't have any concept of homosexuality, 11 of them consider it undesirable but do not have any kind of punishments, and the left 17 strictly disapproved and punished.


In ancient Greece, homosexuality was accepted in some forms. But, in the later period in the Abrahamic religions, the law and the church established sodomy as a transgression against divine law and as a crime against nature. Since the earliest recorded history, in east Asia same-sex have been referred to.[4]


The legal status of Homosexuality around the globe


It's been more than 50 years since the June 1969 riots and people of LGBTQ from all over the world are gearing up for the weekend of celebration in order to remember the day, the event that sparked a revolution in gay rights. Comparing the past and the present situation of the peoples of LGBTQ much has been achieved in the fight for LGBTQ equality in every field in the United States, and many more countries. But again the work is not over yet, there are still many countries where the situation is not the same as others. Talking roughly there are still 10 countries where homosexuality is punishable by death and it remains illegal in countless others.

Brunei, a tiny nation on the island of Borneo provoked international outrage, as it introduced strict action against homosexuality as it passes a new Islamic law in April that makes homosexual activities to be punishable by stoning to death.


Guyana is a place in South America is which is said to be the only country in South America where homosexuality is illegal. Seeing the good side of today’s world, the United States have legalized gay marriage in about 50 states in the year 2015. Here are people all around the world fighting for the rights and equality for LGBTQ and same-sex marriage rights, and have received global support and the support keep on increasing the recent years. There are many countries that recently legalized homosexuality such as Malta, Australia, and Germany in the year 2017. Talking about the Asian country Taiwan made history as becoming the first country in Asia to welcome legislation on marriage equality. And there are 29 countries including the United States around the world where same-sex marriage is legal. (Staff, 28 June 2021)[5], (India: supreme court ruling undermines, 2013) [6]


LGBT rights


There are people around the world who face a lot of violence, torture, inequality just because of whom they love, how they look or want to look like, or how they are. Gender identity or sexual orientation are an integral part of our self and this should never lead to any kind of abuse or discrimination.

Homosexual people are nothing different from people of heterosexuals, they do not need to seek any special or additional rights, they can enjoy the same rights as everyone.


An ordinary day with an extraordinary thing happened on the 6th of September 2018 which brings happiness to all the members of the LGBTQ, as it was the day when the Supreme court of India delivered a verdict that decriminalizing homosexuality by partially putting down section 377 of the Indian Panel code, which section 377 of IPC signifies unnatural offenses, like whoever indulges with intercourse against the order of nature shall be punished with imprisonment of life or imprisonment for 10 years. It was the 2009 Naz Foundation vs. Govt. of NCT of Delhi. It was the British-era law that was put down after 200 years. Though the Supreme court of India has passed the judgment and now the people of same-sex can be together and have relationships but there the law remains hostile and prejudicial in several ways. Now that members of same-sex can be a couple and have their personal affairs but they are still denied equality, treated differently in various aspects. (ACLU, 2021)[7]


Conclusion


The debate on homosexuality will continue for years to come as because it often involves public policy and legal problems or issues. Yet it clearly shows that homosexuality is surrounded by a number of issues of morality and justice, and hence it shows another set of reasons that polarize these debates. (Pickett, 2021)[8]



[1] APA and APA is the largest professional and scientific organization of psychology in the United States. [2] [3] The Global divide on Homosexuality Perists available at : https://www.pewresearch.org/global/2020/06/25/global-divide-on-homosexuality-persists/ (last updated on June 25, 2020) [4] Prejudice, social stress and mental health in lesbian, gay and bisexual population: “conceptual issues and research evidence” Psychol Bull. 2003 Sep; 129(5): 674–697 (2003) [5] Anuradha Parasar, homosexuality in India- the invisible conflict (department of Policy Science, National Law University, N.H-65, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India) [6] India: LGBTQ rights and decision : https://www.hrw.org/news/2013/12/12/india-supreme-court-ruling-undermines-lgbt-rights [7] Legal information about homosexuality, available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/niallmccarthy/2019/06/28/the-legal-status-of-homosexuality-worldwide-infographic/?sh=6af1fe667937 (last modified on Jan 28, 2019, 06:47 am) EDT [8] Evolution of LGBTQ rights in India: Yatin Gaur, B.A.L.L.B, Hidayatullah National Law University. (Last modified on June 21, 2020)

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